- 1: Rohan is a good student.
- 2: Gold is a valuable metal.
- 3: A man came out of the crowd.
- 4: Sincerity is the key to success.
In the examples above, words in bold letters express the NAME of anything in some way or other. Such as—
- Rohan: Name of a boy (man)
- student: Common name of persons going to school, college etc.
- gold: Name of a metal
- metal: Common name of one kind of Objects
- man: Common name of persons (male)
- crowd: Name of a group of persons collectively
- sincerity: Name of a quality
- success: Name of an idea
These are called Nouns. So, we find that Nouns are the words that function as the Name of any specific thing.
Definition of Noun: A Noun is the name of any person, thing, place, idea or action.
Different scholars define Nouns differently. From their views, we find that
- is a Naming word
- functions as the name of any specific thing
- is the name of a person, object, place, idea or action
- signifies a concrete or abstract entity
- is the most common Part of Speech
- Name of Person: Jack, John. Lily, Mr. Samuel, Elina, Sara, Silvia, Anna, Cordelia etc.
- Name of Object: computer, fan, clock, house, brick, box, door, table, football etc.
- Name of Place: Chicago, Australia, New Delhi, Tehran, New York, Geneva, North Pole etc.
- Name of River: Amazon, Jamuna, Ganges, Nile, Mississippi, Padma, Meghna, Rhine, Thames etc.
- Name of Bird: Robbin, parrot, owl, heron, martin, dove, swallow, kingfisher, sparrow, ostrich etc.
- Name of Flower: Rose, daisy, tube-rose, tulip, sun-flower, marigold, Forget Me Not, Lily, Lotus, Narcissus, orchid etc.
- Name of Animal: Lion, cow, buffalo, deer, camel, horse, leopard, camel, donkey, zebra, tiger etc.
- Name of Idea: Liberty, discipline, success, slavery, democracy, globalization, wisdom, justice, freedom etc.
- Name of Quality: Honesty, modesty, sincerity, perseverance , punctuality, loyalty, generosity, beauty, patience etc.
- Name of Action: sleeping, eating, traveling, gossiping, reading, jogging, thinking, swimming, running, walking etc.
- Name of Common entities: man, bird, flower, girl, boy, worker, river, woman, sea, country, continent, animal, insect, mammal, crop etc.
In a sentence, a Noun is used-
- as Subject of Verb:
Geneva is a cosmopolitan city. Man is the supreme creature.
- as Object of Transitive Verb:
People save money for a rainy day. People should not cut trees at random.
- as Complement of Linking Verb:
Knowledge is power. The capital city of the USA is Washington.
- as Complement of Incomplete Transitive Verb:
The class teacher declared Shaon captain. Don’t call Jason liar.
- as Object of Preposition:
The bees wander about flower to flower for honey. Government is trying to remove illiteracy from the country.
- as Object of Infinitive:
People of this village, cultivate pearl from oyster to earn bread. I went to market to buy fish.
- as Object of Participle:
Reading newspaper is the best medium to keep pace with the current world. Teenagers are passing their time in Facebook leaving study.
- as Case in Apposition:
Mr Hart, doctor of medicine, treats people free of cost. Last year, I traveled Dhaka, city of mosque.
TYPES OF NOUN
The most common and traditional classification of Nouns are as follows—
♦ Mainly Nouns are of two types—
A. Concrete Noun
B. Abstract Noun
A Concrete Noun is the name of Something that has physical entities and can be perceived through five sense organs which means that it can be seen, touched, smelt, heard and tasted.
Example: river, computer, sound, flower, school, sweet, chair, bird, sky, earth, car, cloud, heat, song, iron, fragrance etc.
Concrete Nouns are of four kinds—
An Abstract Noun is the name of some idea or quality which has no physical entities and cannot be seen, touched, smelt, heard and tasted. It can only be imagined.
Example: time, sincerity, discipline, honesty, happiness, sorrow, freedom, slavery, democracy, unity, sovereignty, popularity etc.
♦ In respect of Countability, Nouns are of two kinds—
A. Count Noun
B. Non-Count Noun
Definition: A Proper Noun is the name of a specific person, object, place or other things.
- Example: Asia is the largest continent.
In the examples above, Asia and continent are two nouns. But both two nouns are not specific or particular. Continent is a naming word that denotes Asia, Europe, Africa, Australia and so on. In this sense, Asia is the specific name of a continent. So the word Asia is a Proper Noun but continent is not.
To remember about Proper Nouns
- It is the name of a person, object, place or other things.
- It is the specific naming word.
- The first letter of a Proper Noun must be capital letter wherever it is placed in a sentence.
- When Proper Nouns are not used as a proper noun but is used as Common or other nouns, its first letter won’t be Capital.
- Name of Person: James, Rubina, Josephine, Mr. Samuel, Shakira, Lily, Austin, Parker etc.
- Name of Object: clock, tube, basket, disc, computer, desk, bench, chair, fan, torch, football etc.
- Name of Place: Australia, Tehran, San Francisco, Riyadh, Mecca, Sweeden, Geneva, Chicago etc.
- Name of Sea: South Sea, North Sea, Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Mediterranean, Black Sea, South China Sea, Caspian Sea etc.
- Name of Crop: Rice, pulse, wheat, potato, maize, barley, rye, mustered etc.
- Name of Fruit: mango, apple, date, pineapple, jack-fruit, banana, orange, straw-berry, papaya, coconut etc.
- 1: Tahira lives in Europe. [name of a Person, name of a Continent]
- 2: The Quran is the holy book of the Muslim. [name of a Scripture]
- 3: Hello, I want to buy a fry pan. [name of an Object]
- 4: The falcon is a bird of prey. [name of a Bird]
- 5: How nicely the butterfly flying! [name of an insect]
- 6: Whales are the largest creature. [name of a Mammal]
- 7: Tomato is cheaper than potato nowadays. [name of Vegetables]
- 8: Mercury is the nearest planet from the sun. [name of a Planet]
Definition: A Common Noun is the general/common name of every member of a class of person, thing, place or idea.
- Example: Rose, tulip and lotus are my favorite flowers.
In the example above, rose, tulip, lotus are three specific names of flowers. In other word, here rose is a flower; tulip is a flower; lotus is a flower. So, the common name of these three things of the same class is flower. Therefore, flower is the Common Noun in this example. And, there are three members in this group and they are rose, tulip and lotus. Contextually, rose, tulip, lotus are Proper Noun.
To remember about Common Nouns
- It is the common name of every specific person, object, place or thing of the same class.
- It is the general naming word.
- Common Noun is composed of Proper Nouns. It is the general name of a class or kind of Proper Nouns.
- It is the single common name of a group of things.
- So, it is a singular word.
- There may also have a Common Noun of a class of Common Nouns.
- A Common Noun can indicate any of the Nouns in the class but not all the nouns collectively.
|Specific Proper/Common Nouns
|nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen….
|rice, bread, soup, sandwich, burger……..
|Mercury, Venus, Jupiter, Mars…..||planet|
|Julia, Risha, Eva, Ava, Olivia….
|Fahad, John, Jack, Javier, Dryden……..
|boy, girl, man, woman, youth, lady….||human|
|light, sound, electricity, heat….
|carrot, potato, tomato, rabbage, cauliflower……..
|Merchant of Venice, Alice in Wonderland, Farewell to Arms…..
Definition: A Collective Noun is the name of a group or collection of the same kind of Nouns that considered as one undivided whole.
- Example: The royal army saluted the president.
In the examples above, army is a noun. It denotes a group of soldiers. Any or one soldier is not an army. Army means all the soldiers in the group collectively. So, army is a Collective Noun. Again army is not a Common Noun because army does not indicate any of the soldiers.
To remember about Collective Nouns
- It is the name of a group or collection of the similar nouns .
- It is considered undivided whole of the Nouns group.
- It does not indicate any or each of the nouns separately but denotes all the nouns collectively.
- It is usually a singular word [complete whole].
- If Collective Noun denotes each noun of the group separately, it is considered plural.
- flock: a number of birds, domestic animals etc.
- cavalry: group of soldiers fighting on horseback.
- band: a group of people under a captain to serve a definite purpose, a group of people playing instrument together.
- herd: a large group of animals, especially hoofed mammals.
- jury: a body of people sworn to give a verdict in a legal case on the basis of evidence.
- navy: a group of soldiers of a country’s armed forces that is trained to operate at sea.
- gang: an organized group of criminals.
- party: a group of people taking part in a particular activity or trip.
- team: two or more people working together.
- 1: The crowd is following a crazy woman.
- 2: The class stood up at the sight of their head teacher.
- 3: Samuel was selected captain of the group.
- 4: The infantry [group of soldiers marching or fighting on foot] could not return safely.
- 5: How wonderfully the flock of birds is flying!
- 6: The committee consists of ten members.
- 7: The fleet [a group of ships in a country’s navy] is advancing towards the enemy country.
- 8: The audience clapped hilariously after the song ended.
When Collective Noun does not denote ‘undivided whole’ of the nouns group but refers to every noun of the group separately, it is called Noun of Multitude. In this case the Collective Noun is considered plural and it is followed by plural verbs.
- 1: The class is making fun now. [singular Collective Noun]
- 2: The class are divided into two parts. [plural Noun of Multitude]
- 3: The jury holds the same view.[singular Collective Noun]
- 4: The jury hold different views. [plural Noun of Multitude]
Definition: A Material Noun is the name that denotes a matter or substance as a whole and does not indicate any part of it.
- Example: Sugar contains carbohydrate.
In the examples above, sugar is a noun. This is a substance that cannot be counted in number. Though it is composed of particles; when we say ‘sugar’ we simply do not refer to any particle of sugar but refer to sugar as a mass. So, sugar is Material Noun. Similarly, water, salt, oil, ghee, iron, copper, bronze etc, are Material Nouns.
To remember about Material Nouns
- It denotes a matter or substance as a whole not any part or number of it.
- Material Noun is uncountable.
- It is a singular word.
- It is the element that a thing is made of.
water, milk, soil, wood, steel, iron, powder, honey, oil, glass, meat, ghee, plastic, rubber, zinc, aluminum, bronze, gold, tin, rod, syrup, sugar, salt, copper, ice etc.
- 1: Ice floats on water.
- 2: Platinum is a valuable metal.
- 3: There are lots of fat in butter.
- 4: Milk contains all kinds of food elements.
- 5: Oil is a liquid substance.
- 6: This chair is made of plastic.
- 7: Water at high temperature turns into vapor.
- 8: Honey has quality to cure disease.
Definition: An Abstract Noun is the name of some idea or quality which has no physical entities and cannot be perceived through sense organs which means it cannot be seen, heard, smelt, touched or tasted. It can only be imagined.
- Example: Honesty is the best policy.
In the examples above, honesty is a noun. It is the name of a quality which cannot be seen, touched or smelt. In other word, it is not perceivable through sense organs. It is just the name of an idea. So, honesty is an Abstract Noun.
To remember about Abstract Nouns
- It is the name of an idea.
- It cannot be perceived five through organs.
- It is a singular word.
- It is a Non-Count Noun.
- From Common Nouns: friendship, heroism, infancy, slavery, studentship, leadership, brotherhood, childhood, theft, etc.
- From Adjective: beauty, youth, poverty, reality, weakness, length, width, height, ugliness, bravery, truthfulness, sincerity, modesty, obedience, independence, freedom, tiredness, strength, punctuality, wisdom etc.
- From Verb: belief, hatred, service, discussion, thought, sight, laughter, choice, advice, knowledge, annoyance, disturbance, preparation etc.
- Others: democracy, socialism, capitalism, globalization, religion, meditation, ideology, anarchy, diplomacy, sovereignty, bondage, communication, character, fraternity, nationality etc.
- 1: Discipline is the law of nature.
- 2: Fraternity among men can make the world a happy place.
- 3: Computer is the blessing of science.
- 4: Unity is strength.
- 5: Falsehood may destroy one’s character.
- 6: Belief is above Knowledge.
- 7: Charity begins at home.
- 8: Meditation soothes one’s mind.